I retried rebooting, reinstalling, clearing cache, deleting all files on my SD card, resetting my phone, updating Android and updating Spotify. I now tried a clean install again as you suggested Still nothing. A lot of people have this issue with a mainstream phone. I hope this gets the necessary attention.
Sorry to say but I have tried all of these advices and startup behaves the same: the spotify icon appears on a black screen and then it dies. No other app have ever behaved like this. Perhaps somebody at Spotify and Samsung should organize a little workshop regarding this? 😶
EDIT: and this issue has persisted for almost half a year for me, since an Android update in late spring.