Hi Evagerke, I really do not know, this is rather annoying when it happens. In my case this has only happened twice, in both cases on my 8yr old Windows 7 pro 64 OS. First time the renaming worked, second time, closing all applications and shutting the PC down and ON again after ~60 secs. The second time, I lost connection to an HDMI audio source and as a result of that, something messed up Spotify with this results. This must have to do with "slim chance bug" in Spotify software and "not known yet" Software variable in the OS.. Has nothing to do with the rest of your Spotify devices as mobiles or other of your PC's /LT's.
I suggest you to begin with reboot of your PC, but be sure to shut all applications down before you shut down. Wait a minute before you start your PC again. If this does not work.. try the renaming again. If nothing works and you are about to explode, you can try taking your PC back in time using a recent restore point (windows OS) this is only a suggestion and on your own risk, I really do not know if it helps. Good luck.
OK.. bit more, after quickly going through all the discussion in this thread.. most have the issue solved when making sure the audio output is correctly set / working.. so check that one. the error message, partly, fully makes sense if there is no working audio output on your device. Most of the time the audio output is reset when rebooting.. !!!
I had changed the audio output device for Spotify to a Bluetooth speaker yesterday so I could play some music in the house but use my headphones to listen to a conference call. Today I tried to play Spotify without the speaker connected and was receiving this error message for every song I tried to play.
Starting Spotify on a really long playlist so it will appear in the App volume and device preferences list in Windows 10, then changing the Output device from (blank) to the output on my laptop resolved the problem. I suspect that reconnecting the Bluetooth speaker would also resolve the problem although I haven't tested it.
If anyone still wondering here, like me, and tried all methods here and none resolved. It was so simple which made me think I'm the dumbest person in the world.
Windows Settings > System > Sound > Advanced Sound Options > App Volume and Device Preferences.
If Spotify isn't showing, try to play anything. If showing in the list, check if the "Output" box is selected with the your Output device you are using (Headset, speakers, TV, etc.). Mine was blank, I switched to my Headset and it solved.