So I've been in contact with the Spotify Twitter Support and they've tried everything to fix the bug on my phone, but none of all the reinstalling etc. worked. And even after updating the App two more times nothing has changed.
But I was told that their best tech folks are looking into this problem, so hopefully there'll be a solution soon.
I've got the idea it maybe has to do with the filter function. I changed the filter in the Spotify app of a friend from "alphabetical" to "recently added". Now his albums are in order ofv"recently" added, but the filter function disappeared, so he cannot change the order again. In "artists" and "songs" the filter works without problem.
Before the albums in my app disappeared the filter was set "recently added". How was yours set?
Maybe this could help @spotifysupport to fix it asap ...
Just to report I still have the issue. Had a long conversation with @Spotifycares (an oxymoron handle if I ever heard one) and the last contact I had on the 6th Feb was that "Our best tech folks are on the case as we speak. Hopefully we'll have a fix soon!"