Welcome to the Spotify Community and thanks for reaching out about this here.
It'd be useful to read this support site article and follow the steps listed in it to see whether, as a result, Spotify works properly and displays the songs you mentioned as 'Liked' when you're checking the related Artist's page.
Let us know how you get on. We'll keep an eye on your reply!
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"There's more to living than only surviving." - Dexter Holland
I have this same issue, but only for songs liked before some date (haven't pinpointed the date yet). For example, I liked "Don't Wanna Fight" probably 2+ years ago and it doesn't show as liked (or even playing) from the artist page. Whereas I liked "Lions" earlier this month and it displays everything correctly.